Granular drag on a discrete object: shape effects on jamming
We study the drag force on discrete objects with circular cross section moving slowly through a spherical granular medium. Variations in the geometry of the dragged object change the drag force only by a small fraction relative to shape effects in fluid drag. The drag force depends quadratically on the object’s diameter as expected. We do observe, however, a deviation above the expected linear depth dependence, and the magnitude of the deviation is apparently controlled by geometrical factors.
I. Albert, J.G. Sample, A.J. Morss, S. Rajagopalan, A.-L. Barabási, P. Schiffer